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Conduct disorders are characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of dissocial, aggressive, or defiant conduct.

It is one of the most common forms of disorders in children and adolescents with a prevalence of 1.5%.

The behavioral aberrations are much more severe than childish mischief or adolescent rebelliousness.

It is characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the norms and rules of society. It causes significant distress to
both the child and care takers.

1.Excessive levels of fighting or bullying
2.Cruelty to animals or other people
3.Destructiveness to property
6.Repeated lying
7.Truancy from school and running away from home
8.Unusually frequent and severe temper tantrums
9.Defiant provocative behavior
10. Persistent severe disobedience


Depression in children and adolescents is a chronic and relapsing condition.
Prevalence of depression in children is around 1.5% and among adolescents to be  around 4.5%.
Early identification and treatment is important to reduce its long term negative consequences.

Childhood depression manifests as:
Irritability or anger or crying
Continuous feelings of sadness
Social withdrawal
Increased sensitivity to rejection
Changes in appetite and sleep
Difficulty concentrating
Fatigue and low energy
Recurrent  physical complaints (such as stomachaches, headaches)
Decreased interest in hobbies
Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
Thoughts of suicide and self-harm



Isolation from others. Trouble developing new relationships.

Academic troubles resulting from avoidance of work.

Legal trouble e.g. Children falling prey to molesters lurking on the site.


Also referred to as ‘intellectual disability’ and ‘intellectual developmental disorder’.

It is a developmental disorder that arises due to arrested or incomplete development of mind.
Characterized by significant impairments in Intellectual functioning (Academic Performance) and Adaptive behavior during the developmental period.
Usually seen by 3-5 years of age, It is estimated that nearly 2.5% of the global population has MR/ID.

These children are mostly seen with:
1.Delayed milestones of development
2.Poor ability to learn new things
3.Poor speech and comprehension
4.Poor self-help skills
5.And poor school performance
6.Poor memory
7.Behavioral problems such as impulsivity, self-injurious behavior, or sleep/appetite disturbances.
An IQ cut-off of 70 is used to identify ID and its categorization into four severity levels:
§Mild (IQ 50-69),
§Moderate (IQ 35-49),
§Severe (IQ 20-34)
§Profound (IQ less than 20)

Intellectual disability is a permanent condition therefore it creates special needs for both the individual and family across the life span.


Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) is a neuro-developmental disorder.
Characterized by disturbance in the normal pattern of skill acquisition.
It affects 3-10% of children worldwide.
Presented  during early years of schooling
These children’s performance is significantly below that expected (usually 2 classes below) based on their general capacity to learn.
Impairments seen in Children with SLD
1.Slow/ inaccurate/effortful reading.
2.Difficulty understanding what has been read
3.Difficulty in spelling
4.Difficulty in written expression
5.Difficulty in mastering number sense, number facts, calculations
6. Difficulty with Math reasoning 


Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by delay in the development of social, communicative, and cognitive skills.
Estimated that 2–6 per 1,000 (from 1 in 500 to 1 in 150) children have an ASD.
The conditions become manifest during the first 5 years of life.
1. Impairments in Reciprocal  Social Interaction as shown by a lack of response to other people's emotions and/or a lack of behavior change according to social context.
2. Impairments in Communication that take the form of a lack of social usage of language and impairment in make-believe and social imitation.

3. Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. There may be specific attachment to unusual, typically non-soft objects. They may insist on particular routines and there may be a resistance to change.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood with estimated 10-20% prevalence.
Most commonly affects school-aged children.

Children with ADHD are: 
Highly Overactive, do not listen to when called, often leave activities incomplete.
Have difficulty remaining still or calm in situations where it is expected (assembly halls and classrooms).
Are Inattentive, seen as being forgetful, disorganized and easily distractible.
Are Impulsive, seen as acting out of turn, interrupting other children, thoughtless rule breaking, intrusions on peers and getting into accidents.