(1) CONDUCT DISORDERS
disorders are characterized by
a repetitive and persistent pattern of dissocial, aggressive, or
•It is one of the most
common forms of disorders in children and adolescents with a prevalence of 1.5%.
behavioral aberrations are much more severe than childish mischief
or adolescent rebelliousness.
is characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the norms and rules of society. It causes
significant distress to
both the child and care takers.
1.Excessive levels of
fighting or bullying
2.Cruelty to animals or
7.Truancy from school
and running away from home
and severe temper tantrums
10. Persistent severe disobedience
(2) CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION
•Depression in children
and adolescents is a chronic and relapsing condition.
•Prevalence of depression in children is around 1.5% and among
adolescents to be around 4.5%.
•Early identification and treatment is important to reduce its long
term negative consequences.
Childhood depression manifests as:
•Irritability or anger or crying
•Continuous feelings of sadness
•Increased sensitivity to rejection
•Changes in appetite and sleep
•Fatigue and low energy
complaints (such as stomachaches, headaches)
•Decreased interest in hobbies
•Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
Thoughts of suicide and self-harm
3. INTERNET ADDICTION
from others. Trouble developing new relationships.
troubles resulting from avoidance of work.
trouble e.g. Children falling prey to molesters lurking on the site.
4. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
Also referred to as ‘intellectual
disability’ and ‘intellectual
•It is a developmental disorder that arises due to arrested or
incomplete development of mind.
•Characterized by significant impairments in Intellectual functioning
(Academic Performance) and Adaptive behavior during the developmental period.
•Usually seen by 3-5
years of age, It is estimated that
nearly 2.5% of the global population has MR/ID.
These children are mostly seen with:
1.Delayed milestones of development
2.Poor ability to learn new things
3.Poor speech and comprehension
4.Poor self-help skills
5.And poor school performance
7.Behavioral problems such as impulsivity, self-injurious
behavior, or sleep/appetite disturbances.
•An IQ cut-off
of 70 is used to identify ID
and its categorization into four severity levels:
§Mild (IQ 50-69),
§Moderate (IQ 35-49),
§Severe (IQ 20-34)
§Profound (IQ less than 20)
Intellectual disability is a permanent condition therefore it
creates special needs for both the individual and family across the life span.
5. SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY (SLD)
Disorder (SLD) is a neuro-developmental
•Characterized by disturbance in the
normal pattern of skill acquisition.
3-10% of children worldwide.
early years of schooling
performance is significantly below that expected (usually 2 classes below)
based on their general capacity to learn.
•Impairments seen in
Children with SLD
understanding what has been read
in written expression
in mastering number sense, number
with Math reasoning
6. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD)
•Autism Spectrum Disorders are
characterized by delay in the development of social, communicative, and
•Estimated that 2–6
per 1,000 (from 1 in 500 to 1 in 150) children have an ASD.
become manifest during the first 5 years of life.
in Reciprocal Social
Interaction as shown
by a lack of response to other people's emotions and/or a lack of behavior
change according to social context.
in Communication that take
the form of a lack of social usage of language and impairment in make-believe
and social imitation.
3. Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped
patterns of behavior, interests, and activities.
There may be specific attachment to unusual, typically non-soft objects. They may
insist on particular routines and there may be a resistance to change.
(7) ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most
common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood with estimated 10-20% prevalence.
•Most commonly affects school-aged children.
•Children with ADHD are:
o Highly Overactive, do not listen to when called, often leave activities
o Have difficulty remaining still or calm in situations where
it is expected (assembly halls and classrooms).
o Are Inattentive, seen as being forgetful, disorganized and easily
o Are Impulsive, seen as acting out of turn, interrupting other children,
thoughtless rule breaking, intrusions on peers and getting into accidents.